Difficulty Swallowing and Thyroid Disorders: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Difficulty swallowing, known as dysphagia, can be a concerning symptom associated with various thyroid disorders. An impaired ability to swallow foods or liquids comfortably can significantly impact meals and nutrition. Understanding the link between thyroid conditions and swallowing problems is key for proper diagnosis and management.

What is Difficulty Swallowing (Dysphagia)?

Dysphagia refers to any difficulty moving food efficiently from the mouth to the stomach. It can occur at different stages in the swallowing process:

  • Oral phase – chewing and moving food to the back of the mouth
  • Pharyngeal phase – starting the swallow reflex and squeezing food through the throat
  • Esophageal phase – relaxing the esophageal sphincter and muscular contractions to move food to the stomach

Multiple underlying factors can cause dysphagia, including structural abnormalities, neurological conditions, and disorders affecting muscles or nerves involved in swallowing.

What Causes Dysphagia in Thyroid Disorders?

Several factors associated with thyroid disease can contribute to swallowing difficulties:

  • Goiter: An enlarged thyroid can compress the esophagus, causing mechanical obstruction.
  • Thyroid nodules: Large nodules within the thyroid gland can also impede swallowing.
  • Thyroid cancer: Tumors in the thyroid or neck region may physically block food passage.
  • Inflammation: Thyroiditis causes inflammation that can lead to discomfort swallowing.
  • Hormone imbalance: Both excess and insufficient thyroid hormones affect muscle coordination involved in swallowing.

Recognizing the Signs and Symptoms

Symptoms associated with thyroid-related dysphagia may include:

  • Difficulty swallowing foods or liquids
  • Food getting stuck in the throat or chest
  • Pain or discomfort when swallowing
  • Coughing, choking, or gagging when eating
  • Hoarse voice or changes in vocal quality
  • Regurgitation of undigested food
  • Unintentional weight loss from reduced oral intake

These symptoms tend to worsen when eating dry, crumbly, or dense foods.

How Swallowing Problems Are Diagnosed

If thyroid-related dysphagia is suspected, your doctor will likely perform:

  • Medical history and physical exam: To feel for thyroid enlargement, inflammation, or nodules.
  • Thyroid function tests: To diagnose hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism.
  • Ultrasound: Allows visual examination of the thyroid gland.
  • Barium swallow: X-ray visualization of the swallowing mechanism.
  • Endoscopy: Direct examination of the esophagus using a tiny camera.

These help identify any structural abnormalities contributing to dysphagia.

Treating the Underlying Thyroid Disorder

Treatment focuses on addressing the specific thyroid condition causing swallowing dysfunction:

  • Hyperthyroidism: Antithyroid medications, radioactive iodine, or thyroid surgery may be used to reduce excessive hormone production.
  • Hypothyroidism: Thyroid hormone replacement supplements are given to raise hormone levels.
  • Goiter: Radiofrequency ablation, radioactive iodine, or prescription drugs can shrink an enlarged thyroid.
  • Thyroiditis: Anti-inflammatory medications and pain relief may be used short-term to manage inflammation and discomfort.
  • Thyroid nodules/cancer: Radiofrequency ablation or radioactive iodine is performed for malignant or large benign nodules.

Correcting the hormonal imbalance or structural issue disrupting swallowing is key.

Dietary and Lifestyle Changes

Certain dietary modifications and precautions can also help alleviate thyroid-related dysphagia:

  • Opt for soft, moist foods that are easy to swallow and chew.
  • Avoid dry, crunchy, or stringy foods that are hard to swallow.
  • Take small bites of food and chew thoroughly before swallowing.
  • Remain upright when eating and avoid reclining positions.
  • Eat slowly and focus on swallowing without distractions.
  • Stay hydrated with adequate water and liquid intake.
  • Avoid alcohol and tobacco use, which can irritate the throat.

Swallowing Exercises and Therapy

For persistent swallowing difficulties, your doctor may recommend swallowing exercises or therapy with a speech-language pathologist. Techniques aim to strengthen and coordinate the muscles involved in swallowing. This can help override some of the dysfunction caused by thyroid disorders.

Prevention Tips to Avoid Discomfort

Patients with thyroid conditions should adopt measures to prevent exacerbation of swallowing problems:

  • Maintain proper head and neck posture during meals.
  • Avoid large meals and take small bites of soft foods.
  • Manage stress and anxiety which can indirectly affect swallowing.
  • Stay hydrated and sip fluids between bites to ease food passage.
  • Take thyroid medications regularly as directed.
  • Notify your doctor if swallowing becomes progressively worse.

The Outlook for Most Patients

With appropriate treatment for the specific thyroid disorder, dysphagia symptoms generally improve substantially or resolve completely in most cases. The prognosis is usually good, especially when thyroid dysfunction is addressed early before severe swallowing dysfunction develops.

When to See a Doctor

Seek medical advice if you experience persistent or worsening symptoms of dysphagia. Early intervention provides the best opportunity for reversing thyroid-related swallowing dysfunction before it potentially progresses to an advanced stage. Don’t delay – get evaluated right away.


A variety of thyroid disorders can contribute to swallowing difficulties, ranging from thyroid enlargement and inflammation to hormonal imbalances. Addressing the underlying thyroid problem along with certain dietary and lifestyle changes can help manage and overcome dysphagia in most cases. Work closely with your healthcare providers to ensure optimal treatment and monitoring of your thyroid condition.


  1. Dysphagia (Difficulty Swallowing): Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment
  2. Thyroid Enlargement and Difficulty Swallowing (Dysphagia)
  3. Thyroid Disorders | Johns Hopkins Medicine
  4. Dysphagia – Diagnosis and treatment – Mayo Clinic
  5. Swallowing Exercises (entry page)

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